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1989 – Colonel Frederick D. Gregory becomes the first African American to lead a space mission

1986 – George Branaham is the first African American to ever win a Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) title.

1963 – John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas

1942 – Guion S. Bluford, Jr., Ph. D. (Colonel, U.S. Airforce – Retired): First African American in Space born on this date in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1930 – Elijah Muhammad founded the Nation of Islam in Detroit.

1884 – T. Thomas Fortune started New York Freeman, which later became the New York Age.

1884 – The Philadelphia Tribune was founded by Christopher J. Perry

1871 – Lt. Gov. Oscar J. Dunn died suddenly in the midst of a bitter struggle for control of the Louisiana state government. Dunn aides charged that he was poisoned.

1865 – Mississippi legislature enacted Black Codes which restricted the rights and freedom of movement of the freedmen. The Black Codes enacted in Mississippi and other Southern states virtually re-enslaved the freedmen. In some states any white could arrest any Black. In order states minor officials could arrest Black “vagrants” and “refractory and rebellions Negroes” and force them to work on roads and levees without pay. “Servants” in South Carolina were required to work from sunrise to sunset, to be quiet and orderly and go to bed at “reasonable hours.” It was a crime in Mississippi for Blacks to own farm land; in South Carolina Blacks has to get a special license to work outside the domestic and farm laborer categories.